I will try to break it down to understand easier.
*Neuroblastoma is the most common solid cancer (not including brain cancer) in children, and the most common cancer in infants (under the age of 1).
*There are approx. 650 cases of neuroblastoma each year in the United States. About half of these cases are children diagnosed at the, or under the age of 2.
*The tumor(s), are called neuroendocrine tumors. It is a cancer that affects the hormonal and nervous systems.
*Most tumors start on the adrenal gland. The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys. They can also start in the neck, chest, abdomen, or pelvis.
*The cause of neuroblastoma is unknown, but it is believed that it is an abnormal cell growth that occurs during normal development of the adrenal glands.
*6-10% of children with cancer have neuroblastoma
*15% of children with neuroblastoma die every year. Between the ages of 0-4, 10 children in a million die. In ages 4-9, 4 children in a million die from this cancer.
*Mostly infants under the age of 1 are diagnosed with neuroblastoma. In these cases, they are considered congenital.
*Symptoms for neuroblastoma are hard to pinpoint, because they can lead to different diagnoses. Some things include exhaustion, loss of appetite, and fever. Other symptoms depend on where the tumor is located. Because neuroblastoma symptoms are so vague, 50-60% of cases diagnosed have already spread to different areas of the body (Stage 4)
*The stages for cancer are:
- Stage 1: Localized tumor confined to area it grew in.
- Stage 2A: Unilateral tumor with incomplete gross resection; identifiable ipsilateral and contralateral lymph node negative for tumor.
- Stage 2B: Unilateral tumor with complete or incomplete gross resection; with ipsilateral lymph node positive for tumor; identifiable contralateral lymph node negative for tumor.
- Stage 3: Tumor infiltrating across midline with or without regional lymph node involvement; or unilateral tumor with contralateral lymph node involvement; or midline tumor with bilateral lymph node involvement.
- Stage 4: Dissemination of tumor to distant lymph nodes, bone marrow, bone, liver, or other organs except as defined by Stage 4S.
- Stage 4S: Age <1>
*Children with low risk factors have a 90% chance of survival. Intermediate is between 70-90%, and high risk is 30%.
*Most children who had high risk neuroblastoma, will relapse again in their childhood.
*Most neuroblastoma survivors today had low to intermediate risk factors. Most of them have long term effects from their treatment.
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